The 20-year-old, from Linlithgow in West Lothian, boarded the train at 11:30pm at Glasgow Queen Street on Saturday November 20.
CCTV footage from the incident showed that as the train approached Falkirk High station he appeared to get into an argument with the five men.
He was then attacked and dragged onto the station platform where he was assaulted and sustained injuries to his face and neck.
He was taken to Stirling Royal Infirmary and released following treatment.
Officers are currently monitoring CCTV footage from the train and stations in an effort to identify those believed to be reponsible.
Detective Constable David McAllister of BTP, the officer in charge of the enquiry, is appealing for witnesses to come forward.
He said: “The train would have been busy at the time and I’m sure passengers may have information that can assist in identifying the group of five men.
“Anyone with information should contact me as a matter of urgency.”
British Transport Police can be contacted on 0800 405040 or information can be given anonymously to Crimestoppers on 0800 555111.