Cooling towers are the most economical and efficient way to cool large volumes of water and various liquids because they do not use ammonia, freon, and other substances involved in heat exchange, which require additional electricity. The work of the system is quite simple. The cooling process in the device is carried out due to the partial evaporation of the liquid and the implementation of heat exchange with air. In this case, the water in the cooling tower flows down the sprinkler in the form of drops or a thin film. At the same time, air currents pass along the sprinkler.
If you do not know which is better personally for your enterprise, you can contact Baikal Mechanical and the specialist will provide you with more detail and will help you to choose the one which suits your needs. Depending on the temperature, the purpose of the chilled water, and the method of heat transfer, cooling towers are divided into evaporative, dry, and hybrid. The cooling tower is selected by taking into account various factors:
- atmospheric conditions;
- temperature drop level;
- water consumption;
- technical calculations;
- chemical composition of water (working and additional);
- location of equipment on site.
Another type that should be singled out separately is small-sized cooling towers. They are similar to conventional sectional ones, but differ in the type of fan. The fan is forced and installed from below. Small-sized cooling towers solve the problem of cooling water in enterprises with a small turnaround cycle. All their advantages and disadvantages are due to their design.
The choice of external dimensions must be taken seriously, as this affects the efficiency of the installation and its energy consumption. Among modern industrial cooling towers, it is worth highlighting units with cross-flow and counter-flow air. They have a number of advantages:
- compactness — they are relatively small in size compared to cross-flow cooling towers, provided they have the same cooling capacity;
- the power required to drive the fan is 3-5% higher than for transverse types;
- the power required to drive counterflow cooling tower pumps is typically 15-20% lower than for crossflow models.
It follows from this that the use of counterflow cooling towers reduces energy consumption.
An open-type cooling tower system operates on the basis of the natural convection of air masses and wind. Irrigation channels are enclosed with special blinds that prevent the removal of liquid from the pool. The operation of cooling towers depends on the wind, which limits the use for enterprises whose production cycle needs to maintain a constant temperature of the circulating water. Devices effectively cool water, while requiring a minimum amount of electricity. An open cooling tower requires large areas and high inertia.
The closed-type of cooling tower in which the liquid requiring cooling, used to remove excess heat, enters through the upper manifold into the heat exchanger and leaves it through the lower manifold. In the primary circuit, water losses are excluded, since it is closed. Water remains pure, without forming a deposit and without corroding. An open cooling tower can be replaced by a closed one.
Maintenance involves a number of activities, the main of which include methods for cleaning all elements of the cooling tower from contamination. There are two cleaning methods, both mechanical and chemical. Usually, maintenance is planned depending on the degree of contamination of the equipment, but at least once a year. It can be done with the help of specialists. Baikal Mechanical works with HVAC cooling towers for a long time and is aware of every detail. Before chemical treatment, a number of safety requirements must be met.